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Contrast Transfer Function

SUGGESTED LIST

Cryo-Microscopy

Toyoshima, C. and N. Unwin (1988) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens: determination from pairs of defocused images. Ultramicrosc. 25:279-292.

Langmore, J. P. and M. F. Smith (1992) Quantitative energy-filtered electron microscopy of biological molecules in ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:349-373.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Quantitation of molecular densities by cryo-electron microscopy: Determination of the radial density distribution of tobacco mosaic virus. J. Mol. Biol. 226:763-774.

Wade, R. H. (1992) A brief look at imaging and contrast transfer. Ultramicrosc. 46:145-156.

Toyoshima, C., K. Yonekura and H. Sasabe (1993) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens II. Amplitude contrast at very low frequencies. Ultramicrosc. 48:165-176.

Zhou, Z. H., S. Hardt, B. Wang, M. B. Sherman, J. Jakana and W. Chiu (1996) CTF determination of images of ice-embedded single particles using a graphics interface. J. Struc. Biol. 116:216-222.

Non-Cryo Contrast Transfer Function

Erickson, H. P. and A. Klug (1971) Measurement and compensation of defocusing and aberrations by fourier processing of electron micrographs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:105-118.

Unwin, P. N. T. (1973) Phase contrast electron microscopy of biological materials. J. Microsc. 98:299-312.

Frank, J., S. C. McFarlane and K. H. Downing (1978) A note on the effect of illumination aperture and defocus spread in brightfield electron microscopy. Optik 52:49-60.

EXTENSIVE LIST

Cryo-Microscopy

Hayward, S. B. and R. M. Stroud (1981) Projected structure of purple membrane determined to 3.7 resolution by low temperature electron microscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 151:491-517.

Lepault, J. and T. Pitt (1984) Projected structure of unstained, frozen-hydrated T-layer of Bacillus brevis. EMBO J. 3:101-105.

Lepault, J. and K. Leonard (1985) Three-dimensional structure of unstained, frozen-hydrated extended tails of bacteriophage T4. J. Mol. Biol. 182:431-441.

Stewart, M. and G. Vigers (1986) Electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological material. Nature 319:631-636.

Milligan, R. A. and P. F. Flicker (1987) Structural relationships of actin, myosin, and tropomyosin revealed by cryo-electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 105:29-39.

Dubochet, J., M. Adrian, J.-J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, Lepault, J., A. W. McDowall and P. Schultz (1988) Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 21:129-228.

Toyoshima, C. and N. Unwin (1988) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens: determination from pairs of defocused images. Ultramicrosc. 25:279-292.

Jeng, T.-W., R. A. Crowther, G. Stubbs and W. Chui (1989) Visualization of alpha-helices in tobacco mosaic virus by cryo-electron microscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 205:251-257.

Stewart, M. (1990). Electron microscopy of biological macromolecules: frozen hydrated methods and computer image processing. Modern Microscopies: Techniques and Applications. (P. J.Duke and A. G. Michette, Eds.), Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 9-39.

Toyoshima, C. and N. Unwin (1990) Three-dimensional structure of the acetylcholine receptor by cryoelectron microscopy and helical image reconstruction. J. Cell Biol. 111:2623-2635.

Cabral-Lilly, D., G. N. J. Phillips, G. E. Sosinsky, , L. Melanson, S. Chacko and C. Cohen (1991) Structural studies of tropomyosin by cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Biophys. J. 59:805-814.

Cheng, R. H., N. H. Olson and T. S. Baker (1992) Cauliflower mosaic virus: A 420 subunit (T=7), multilayer structure. Virology 186:655-668.

Brink, J. and W. Chiu (1991) Contrast analysis of cryo-images in N-paraffin recorded at 400kV out to 2.1 resolution. J. Microsc. 161:279-295.

Langmore, J. P. and M. F. Smith (1992) Quantitative energy-filtered electron microscopy of biological molecules in ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:349-373.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Quantitation of molecular densities by cryo-electron microscopy: Determination of the radial density distribution of tobacco mosaic virus. J. Mol. Biol. 226:763-774.

Wade, R. H. (1992) A brief look at imaging and contrast transfer. Ultramicrosc. 46:145-156.

Stewart, P. L., S. D. Fuller and R. M. Burnett (1993) Difference imaging of adenovirus: Bridging the resolution gap between x-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. EMBO J. 12:2589-259.

Toyoshima, C., K. Yonekura and H. Sasabe (1993) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens II. Amplitude contrast at very low frequencies. Ultramicrosc. 48:165-176.

Unwin, N. (1993) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 9 resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 229:1101-1124.

Wade, R. H. and D. Chretien (1993) Cryoelectron microscopy of microtubules. J. Struct. Biol. 110:1-27.

Zhou, Z. H. and W. Chiu (1993) Prospects for using an IVEM with a FEG for imaging macromolecules towards atomic resolution. Ultramicrosc. 49:407-416.

Conway, J. F., B. L. Trus, F. P. Booy, W. W. Newcomb, J. C. Brown and A. C. Steven (1996) Visualization of three-dimensional density maps reconstructed from cryoelectron micrographs of viral capsids. J. Struct. Biol. 116:200-208.

Frank, J., M. Radermacher, P. Penczek, J. Zhu, Y. Li, M. Ladjadj and A. Leith (1996) SPIDER and WEB: Processing and visualization of images in 3D electron microscopy and related fields. J. Struct. Biol. 116:190-199.

Saxton, W. O. (1996) SEMPER: Distortion compensation, selective averaging, 3-D reconstruction, and transfer function correction in a highly programmable system. J. Struct. Biol. 116:230-236.

Zhou, Z. H., S. Hardt, B. Wang, M. B. Sherman, J. Jakana and W. Chiu (1996) CTF determination of images of ice-embedded single particles using a graphics interface. J. Struc. Biol. 116:216-222.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins Concerning Cryo-Microscopy

Cheng, R. H. (1992) Correlation of Cryo-Electron Microscopic and X-Ray Data and Compensation of the Contrast Transfer Function. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:996-997.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Correction of the Contrast Transfer Function to Determine the Radial Density Distribution of Frozen- Hydrated Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:536-537.

Non-Cryo Contrast Transfer Function

Erickson, H. P. and A. Klug (1970) The fourier transform of an electron micrograph: Effects of defocusing and aberrations, and implications for the use of underfocus contrast enhancement. Ber. Bunsen-Gesellschaft Phys. Chem. 74:1129-1137.

Hoppe, W. (1970) Principles of electron structure research at atomic resolution using conventional electron microscopes for the measurement of amplitudes and phases. Acta Cryst. A26:414-426.

Erickson, H. P. and A. Klug (1971) Measurement and compensation of defocusing and aberrations by fourier processing of electron micrographs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:105-118.

Hanszen, K. J. (1971) The optical transfer theory of the electron microscope: fundamental principles and applications. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. (R. Barer & V. E. Cosslett, eds.) 4:1-84.

Hoppe, W. (1971) Use of zone correction plates and other techniques for structure determination of aperiodic objects at atomic resolution using a conventional electron microscope. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:71-94.

Thon, F. (1971). Phase contrast electron microscopy. Electron Microscopy in Materials Science. (Ed. U. Valdre) Academic Press, N. Y. pp. 570-625.

Erickson, H. P. (1973) The Fourier transform of an electron micrograph: First order and second order theory of image formation. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. (R. Barer & V. E. Cosslett, eds.) 5:163-199.

Frank, J. (1973) The envelope of electron microscopic transfer functions for partially coherent illumination. Optik 38:519-536.

Frank, J. (1973) Computer processing of electron micrographs. Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy (Ed. J. K. Koehler) Springer-Verlag 1:215-274.

Johansen, B. V. (1973) Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens. I. Obtaining the optimum contribution of phase contrast to image formation. Micron 4:446-472.

Johnson, D. J. and D. Crawford (1973) Defocusing phase contrast effects in electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 98:313-324.

Johnson, H. M. (1973) In-focus phase contrast electron microscopy. Princ. Tech. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. M. A. Hayat)Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N. Y. 3:153-198.

Unwin, P. N. T. (1973) Phase contrast electron microscopy of biological materials. J. Microsc. 98:299-312.

Johansen, B. V. (1975) Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens. III. Expanded phase contrast information using in situ double exposures with complementary objective apertures. Micron 6:153-163.

Johansen, B. V. (1975) Optical diffractometry. Princ. Tech. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. M. A. Hayat)Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N. Y. 5:114-173.

Unwin, P. N. T. and R. Henderson (1975) Molecular structure determination by electron microscopy of unstained crystalline specimens. J. Mol. Biol. 94:425-440.

Burge, R. E. (1976) Contrast and image formation of biological specimens. Princ. Tech. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. M. A. Hayat)Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N. Y. 6:85-116.

Misell, D. L. (1976) On the validity the weak-phase and other approximations in the analysis of electron microscope images. J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 9:1849-1866.

Chiu, W. and R. M. Glaeser (1977) Factors affecting high resolution fixed-beam transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 2:207-217.

Johansen, B. V. (1977) High resolution bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens. Ultramicrosc. 2:229-239.

Wade, R. H. and J. Frank (1977) Electron microscope transfer functions for partially coherent axial illumination and chromatic defocus spread. Optik 49:81-92.

Frank, J., S. C. McFarlane and K. H. Downing (1978) A note on the effect of illumination aperture and defocus spread in brightfield electron microscopy. Optik 52:49-60.

Hawkes, P. W. (1978) Coherence in electron optics. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 7:101-184.

Misell, D. L. (1978) Image analysis, enhancement and interpretation. Pract. Meth. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. A. M. Glauert)North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam 7:1-305.

Misell, D. L. (1978) The phase problem in electron micrscopy. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 7:185-279.

Klug, A. (1979) Image analysis and reconstruction in the electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Chemica Scripta 14:245-256.

Cohen, H. and W. Chiu (1981) Accumulated dose dependence of support film contrast transfer function. Ultramicrosc. 6:335-342.

Fuller, S. D. (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction of membrane protein crystals. Meth. Cell Biol. 22:251-296.

Amos, L. A., R. Henderson and P. N. T. Unwin (1982) Three-dimensional structure determination by electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 39:183-231.

Cosslett, V. E. (1982) Resolution and contrast in the electron microscope: An historical review. J. Microsc. 128:23-31.

VanDyck, D. and A. F. deJong (1992) Ultimate resolution and information in electron microscopy: general principles. Ultramicrosc. 47:266-281.

Otten, M. T. and W. M. J. Coene (1993) High-resolution imaging on a field emission TEM. Ultramicrosc. 48:77-91.

Zemlin, F. (1994) Expected contribution of the field-emission gun to high- resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micron 25:223-226.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters, Bulletins Concerning Non-Cryo Contrast Transfer Function

Erickson, H. P. and A. Klug (1970) Phase contrast electron microscopy and compensation of aberrations by Fourier image processing. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:248-249.

Welton, T. A., F. L. Ball and W. W. Harris (1973) Wiener processing of phase contrast electron micrographs. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 31:270-271.

Voter, W. A. and H. P. Erickson (1974) An experimental study of deviations from the linear transfer theory. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 32:400-401.

Thon, F. (1975) Processing of high resolution images by analogue methods. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 33:16-17.

Unwin, P. N. T. and R. Henderson (1975) High resolution structure determination of unstained biological molecules. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 33:298-299.

Chiu, W. and R. M. Glaeser (1978) Electron exposure-dependent contrast transfer. Proc. Ninth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Toronto) 1:94-95.

Krivanek, O. L. (1978) EM contrast transfer functions for tilted illumination imaging. Proc. Ninth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Toronto) 1:168-169.

deJong, A. F. (1992). Measurement of PCTF parameters with high accuracy. EUREM 92, (Granada, Spain), 1:137-138.

deJong, A. F., W. M. J. Coene and A. J. Koster (1992) Measurement of PCTF parameters with high accuracy. Proc. Elect. Micros. Soc. Amer. 50:136-137.

Notes

Hayward, S. B. and R. M. Stroud (1981) Projected structure of purple membrane determined to 3.7 resolution by low temperature electron microscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 151:491-517. This gives formula for envelope function and discuss correction of Fourier amplitudes.

Lepault, J. and T. Pitt (1984) Projected structure of unstained, frozen-hydrated T-layer of Bacillus brevis. EMBO J. 3:101-105. CTF correction (Wiener filter).

Toyoshima, C. and N. Unwin (1988) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens: determination from pairs of defocused images. Ultramicrosc. 25:279-292.

Toyoshima, C. and N. Unwin (1990) Three-dimensional structure of the acetylcholine receptor by cryoelectron microscopy and helical image reconstruction. J. Cell Biol. 111:2623-2635. Deconvolution using CTFs merged from focal pair.

Stewart, P. L., S. D. Fuller and R. M. Burnett (1993) Difference imaging of adenovirus: Bridging the resolution gap between x-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. EMBO J. 12:2589-259. Discusses deconvolution with the inverse CTF.

Cheng, R. H., N. H. Olson and T. S. Baker (1992) Cauliflower mosaic virus: A 420 subunit (T=7), multilayer structure. Virology 186:655-668. Focal pair: high defocus to get orientation; low defocus to get reconstruction.

Wade, R. H. (1992) A brief look at imaging and contrast transfer. Ultramicrosc. 46:145-156. Discusses envelope function and CTF corrections.

Otten, M. T. and W. M. J. Coene (1993) High-resolution imaging on a field emission TEM. Ultramicrosc. 48:77-91. Comparison of CTF curves for FEG and normal TEM showing superior performance of FEG because of coherence..

Toyoshima, C., K. Yonekura and H. Sasabe (1993) Contrast transfer for frozen-hydrated specimens II. Amplitude contrast at very low frequencies. Ultramicrosc. 48:165-176.

Unwin, N. (1993) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 9 resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 229:1101-1124. Deconvolution using CTFs merged from several micrographs.

Wade, R. H. and D. Chretien (1993) Cryoelectron microscopy of microtubules. J. Struct. Biol. 110:1-27. Discusses envelope function.

Saxton, W. O. (1996) SEMPER: Distortion compensation, selective averaging, 3-D reconstruction, and transfer function correction in a highly programmable system. J. Struct. Biol. 116:230-236. Interactive transfer function fitting.

Tsujiuchi, J. (1963) Correction of optical images by compensation of aberrations and by spatial frequency filtering. Prog. Optics 2:133-180.

Welton, T. A. (1971) Computational correction of aberrations in electron microscopy. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 29:94-95.

Hoppe, W. (1972) Recording, processing and correction of electron microscope images. Fifth Europ. Reg. Conf. Elec. Microsc. (Manchester) 612-617.

Thon, F. (1974) In-line and a posteriori improvement of high resolution electron microscopical images. Proc. Eighth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Canberra) 1:238-239.

Frank, J. (1975) Determination of energy spread and source size by optical diffraction. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 33:182-183.

Frank, J. (1976) Phase contrast and partial coherence. Sixth Europ. Reg. Conf. Elec. Microsc. (Jerusalem) 1:97-98.

Zemlin, F. (1978) Image synthesis from electron micrographs taken at different defocus. Ultramicrosc. 3:261-263.

Cowley, J. M. and R. E. Bridges (1979) Phase and amplitude contrast in electron microscopy of stained biological objects. Ultramicrosc. 4:419-427.

Kirkland, E. J., B. M. Siegel, N. Uyeda and Y. Fujiyoshi (1980) Digital reconstruction of bright field phase contrast images from high resolution electron micrographs. Ultramicrosc. 5:479-503.

Kirkland, E. J. and B. M. Siegel (1981) Linear image processing and anomalous scattering. Ultramicrosc. 6:169-180.

Chang, C.-F., R. C. Williams, D. A. Grano, K. H. Downing, and R. M. Glaeser (1983) Quantitative evaluation of high-resolution features in images of negatively stained tobacco mosaic virus. Ultramicrosc. 11:3-12.


Cryo-Electron Microscopy Cold Holder/ Stage/Anti-Contaminator

General References

Taylor, K. A. and R. M. Glaeser (1975) Modified airlock door for the introduction of frozen specimens into the JEM 100B electron microscope. Rev. Sci. Instr. 46:985-986.

Swann, P. (1979) Side entry specimen stages. Kristall und Technik 14:1235-1243.

Hayward, S. B. and R. M. Glaeser (1980) High resolution cold stage for the JEOL 100B and 100C electron microscopes. Ultramicrosc. 5:3-8.

Hayward, S. B. and R. M. Glaeser (1980). Use of low temperatures for electron diffraction and imaging of biological macromolecular arrays. Electron Microscopy at Molecular Dimensions. (Eds., W.Baumeister & W. Vogell) Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 226-233.

Dubochet, J., J. Lepault, R. Freeman, J. A. Berriman, Homo and J.-C. (1982) Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions. J. Microsc. 128:219-237.

Hax, W. M. A. and S. Lichtenegger (1982) Transfer, observation and analysis of frozen hydrated specimens. J. Microsc. 126:275-284.

Homo, J.-C., F. Booy, P. Labouesse, J. Lepault and J. Dubochet (1984) Improved anticontaminator for cryo-electron microscopy with a Philips EM 400. J. Microsc. 136:337-340.

Jeng, T.-W. and W. Chiu (1987) High resolution cryo system designed for JEM 100CX electron microscope. Ultramicrosc. 23:61-66.

Dubochet, J., M. Adrian, J.-J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, Lepault, J., A. W. McDowall and P. Schultz (1988) Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 21:129-228.

Downing, K. H. and W. Chiu (1990) Cold stage design for high resolution electron microscopy of biological specimens. Elec. Microsc. Rev. 3:213-226.

Bailey, S. M., S. Chiruvolu, M. L. Longo and J. A. N. Zasadzinski (1991) Design and operation of a simple environmental chamber for rapid freezing fixation. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 19:118-126.

Fujiyoshi, Y., T. Mizusaki, K. Morikawa, H. Yamagishi, Y. Aoki, H. Kihara and Y. Harada (1991) Development of a superfluid helium stage for high- resolution electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 38:241-251.

Henderson, R., C. Raeburn and G. Vigers (1991) A side-entry cold holder for cryo-electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 35:45-53.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins

Freeman, R., F. Booy and K. Leonard (1980) Cold transfer and observation of frozen hydrated biological specimens in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Seventh Europ. Reg. Conf. Elec. Microsc. (The Hague) 2:650-651.

Lichtenegger, S. and W. M. A. Hax (1980) A cryo-transfer holder for a tem/stem system. Seventh Europ. Reg. Conf. Elec. Microsc. (The Hague) 2:652-653.

Hax, W. M. A. and S. Lichtenegger (1983) A cryo-transfer system for EM400 electron microscopes. Elec. Optics Rep. 30:57-60.

Lamvik, M. K., R. E. Worsham, D. A. Kopf and J. D. Robertson (1983) Stage cooling rates and specimen-transfer facilities of the Duke University cryomicroscope. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 41:306-307.

Gatan (1996) Improving cryoholder performance for cryomicroscopy. Gatan KnowHow 3:4-5.

Armbruster, B.L., R. Zolkowski and P.R. Swann (1998) Development of a side entry high tilt cryotransfer stage for tomographic applications. MSA Proceedings 1998:402-403.

Cryo-microscopes and Intermediate / High Voltage Microscopes

Chiu, W., T.-W. Jeng, L. L. Degn and B. V. V. Prasad (1986). Potential of high-resolution electron crystallography at intermediate high voltage. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Recent Advances in Electron and Light Optical imaging in biology and Medicine Ed. A. P. Somlyo. New York, The N.Y. Academu of Sciences.

Brink, J. and W. Chiu (1991) Contrast analysis of cryo-images in n-paraffin recorded at 400kV out to 2.1 resolution. J. Microsc. 161:279-295.

Brink, J., W. Chiu and M. Dougherty (1992) Computer-controlled spot-scan imaging of crotoxin complex crystals with 400 keV electrons at near-atomic resolution. Ultramicrosc. 46:229-240.

Zemlin, F. (1992) Desired features of cryoelectron microscope for the electron crystallography of biological material. Ultramicrosc. 46:25-32.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins

Busing, W. M. and M. J. C. deJong (1990). The CM-cryo: A microscope dedicated to cryo-electron microscopy in life science applications. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:176-177.

Fujiyoshi, Y. (1990). High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:126-127.

O'Toole, E. T., G. P. Wray, J. R. Kremer and J. R. McIntosh (1990). HVEM cryomicroscopy of frozen hydrated PTK1 cells. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:500-501.

Sugiyama, M., H. Kubo and K. Fukushima (1990). Application of a superconducting cryo-electron microscope to the physics and material science of ceramics. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:82-83.

Chiu, W., M. F. Schmid, J. Jakana and P. Matsudaira (1991). Electron cryo-microscopy of macromolecular assembly at 400 kV. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:426-427.

Chiu, W., J. Brink, T. Soejima and M. Schmid (1992) Protein Electron Crystallography by 400KV Cryo-Microscopy. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1054-1055.

deJong, M. J. C., W. M. Musing and M. T. Otten (1992) Enhanced information from biological materials through technological improvements in cryo-electron microscopy. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:788-789.

Typke, D., R. Hegerl and J. Kleinz (1992) Image Restoration for Biological Specimens Using External TEM Control and Electronic Image Recording. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1000-1001.

Fujiyoshi, Y., K. Murata, K. Mitsuoka, T. Hirai, A. Miyazawa and Y. Kimura (1995) A microscopic system for high resolution electron crystallography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:70-71.


Transmission Electron Microscopy Energy Filter

SUGGESTED LIST

Schroder, R. R., W. Hofmann and J.-F. Menetret (1990) Zero-loss energy filtering as improved imaging mode in cryoelectron microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens. J. Struct. Biol. 105:28-34.

Langmore, J. P. and M. F. Smith (1992) Quantitative energy-filtered electron microscopy of biological molecules in ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:349-373.

Schroder, R. R. (1992) Zero-loss energy-filtered imaging of frozen-hydrated proteins: model calculations and implications for future developments. J. Microsc. 166:389-400.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Quantitation of molecular densities by cryo-electron microscopy: determination of the radial density distribution of tobacco mosaic virus. J. Mol. Biol. 226:763-774.

Gubbens, A. J. and O. L. Krivanek (1993) Application of a post-column imaging filter in biology and materials science. Ultramicrosc. 51:146-159.

EXTENSIVE LIST

Trinick, J. and J. Berriman (1987) Zero-loss electron microscopy with the Zeiss EM902. Ultramicrosc. 21:393-398.

Bazett-Jones, D. P., L. Locklear and J. B. Rattner (1988) Electron spectroscopic imaging of DNA. J. Ultrastruct. Mol.Struct. Res. 99:48-58.

Lamvik, M. K. and S. D. Davilla (1988) Dynamic hydration effects in electron microscope cold stage. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 8:349-354.

Stobbs, W. M. and W. O. Saxton (1988) Quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy: The need for energy filtering and the advantages of energy-loss imaging. J. Microsc. 151:171-184.

Reimer, L. and M. Ross-Messemer (1989) Contrast in the electron spectroscopic imaging mode of a TEM. I. Influence of zero-loss filtering on scattering contrast. J. Microsc. 155:169-182.

Krivanek, O. L., C. C. Ahn and G. J. Wood (1990) The inelastic contribution to high resolution images of defects. Ultramicrosc. 33:177-185.

Ozel, M., G. Pauli and H. R. Gelderblom (1990) Electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) of viruses using thin-section and immunolabelling preparations. Ultramicrosc. 32:35-41.

Reimer, L., I. Fromm and I. Naundorf (1990) Electron spectroscopic diffraction. Ultramicrosc. 32:80-91.

Schroder, R. R., W. Hofmann and J.-F. Menetret (1990) Zero-loss energy filtering as improved imaging mode in cryoelectron microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens. J. Struct. Biol. 105:28-34.

Wagner, H.-J. (1990) Contrast tuning by electron spectroscopic imaging of half-micrometer-thick sections of nervous tissue. Ultramicrosc. 32:42-47.

Maunsbach, A. B., E. Zellmann and E. Skriver (1991) Cryo-electron microscope analysis of frozen-hydrated two- dimensional Na,K-ATPase crystals. Micron 22:57-58.

Michel, M., T. Hillmann and M. Muller (1991) Cryosectioning of plant material frozen at high pressure. J. Microsc. 163:3-18.

Nys, B., W. Jacob and P. V. Espen (1991) The use of low-cost frame grabber boards on PC-AT computers for ESI: possibilities and limitations. J. Microsc. 162:55-60.

Reimer, L., R. Rennekamp, I. Fromm and M. Langenfeld (1991) Contrast in the electron spectroscopic imaging mode of a TEM. IV. Thick specimens imaged by the most-probable energy loss. J. Microsc. 162:3-14.

Bazett-Jones, D. P. (1992) Electron spectroscopic imaging of chromatin and other nucleoprotein complexes. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 5:37-58.

Bonnet, N., E. Simova, S. Lebonvallet and H. Kaplan (1992) New applications of multivariate statistical analysis in spectroscopy and microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 40:1-11.

Delain, E., F. Pochon, M. Barray and F. v. Leuven (1992) Ultrastructure of a2 macroglobulins. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 5:231-281.

Langmore, J. P. and M. F. Smith (1992) Quantitative energy-filtered electron microscopy of biological molecules in ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:349-373.

Olins, A. L., D. E. Olins and D. P. Bazett-Jones (1992) Balbiani ring hnRNP substructure visualized by selective staining and electron spectroscopic imaging. J. Cell Biol. 117:483-491.

Reimer, L., I. Fromm, P. Hirsch, U. Plate and R. Rennekamp (1992) Combination of EELS modes and electron spectroscopic imaging and diffraction in an energy-filtering electron microscope. Ultramicrosc. 46:335-347.

Rez, P., W. Chiu, J. K. Weiss and J. Brink (1992) The thickness determination of organic crystals under low dose conditions using electron energy loss spectroscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 21:166-170.

Schroder, R. R. (1992) Zero-loss energy-filtered imaging of frozen-hydrated proteins: model calculations and implications for future developments. J. Microsc. 166:389-400.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Quantitation of molecular densities by cryo-electron microscopy: determination of the radial density distribution of tobacco mosaic virus. J. Mol. Biol. 226:763-774.

Egerton, R. F., Y.-Y. Yang and S. C. Cheng (1993) Characterization and use of the Gatan 666 parallel- recording electron energy-loss spectrometer. Ultramicrosc. 48:239-250.

Gubbens, A. J. and O. L. Krivanek (1993) Application of a post-column imaging filter in biology and materials science. Ultramicrosc. 51:146-159.

Leapman, R. D., J. Brink and W. Chiu (1993) Low-dose thickness measurement of glucose-embedded protein crystals by electron energy loss spectroscopy and STEM dark-field imaging. Ultramicrosc. 52:157-166.

Schroder, R. R., D. J. Manstein, W. Jahn, H. Holden, I. Rayment, K. C. Holmes and J. A. Spudich (1993) Three-dimensional atomic model of F-actin decorated with Dictyostelium myosin S1. Nature 364:171-174.

Frank, J., J. Zhu, P. Penczek, Y. Li, S. Srivastava, A. Verschoor, M. Radermacher, R. Grassucci, R. K. Lata and R. K. Agrawal (1995) A model of protein synthesis based on cryo-electron microscopy of the E. coli ribosome. Nature 376:441-444.

Leapman, R. D.; Jarnik, M.; Steven, A. C. (1997) Spatial distributions of sulfur-rich proteins in cornifying epithelia. Journal of Structural Biology 120 (2) 168-179.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins

Langmore, J. P. and B. D. Athey (1987) Removal of inelastically scattered electrons substantially increases phase contrast on frozen-hydrated molecules. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 45:652-653.

Langmore, J. P., M. F. Smith and D. A. Rankert (1990). Quantitative energy-filtered cryo-EM of hydrated chromosome fibers, viruses, and heavy atoms. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:252-253.

Lücken, U. (1990). Electron-spectroscopic imaging (ESI) of frozen hydrated lipid vesicles and membrane proteins: A comparison with TEM. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:508-509.

Probst, W., E. Zellmann and R. Bauer (1990). Energy-filtered electron microscopy (EFEM) of frozen hydrated biological specimens. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:274-275.

Reimer, L., A. Bakenfelder, I. Fromm, R. Rennekamp and M. Ross-Messemer (1990) Electron spectroscopic imaging and diffraction. EMSA Bull. 20:73-80.

Bihr, J., G. Benner, D. Krahl, A. Rilk and E. Weimer (1991) Design of an analytical TEM with integrated imaging omega-spectrometer. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:354-355.

Bazett-Jones, D. P. (1992) Energy-Filtered Imaging of Biological Specimens. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1564-1565.

Bazett-Jones, D. P. and M. L. Brown (1992) Transcription Factor/DNA Interactions Visualized by Electron Spectroscopic Imaging. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:450-451.

Beniac, D. and G. Harauz (1992) Visualisation of E.coli Ribosomal RNA in situ by Electron Spectroscopic Imaging and Image Averaging. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:466-467.

Gubbens, A. J. and O. L. Krivanek (1992) Energy-Filtered Imaging in Biological Intermediate Voltage TEM. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 1570-1571.

Krivanek, O. L., A. J. Gubbens, N. Dellby and C. E. Meyer (1992) Design and Applications of a Post-Column Imaging Filter. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1192-1193.

Lehman, J. L., J. Mayer and W. Probst (1992) Application of the Omega Spectrometer TEM. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1042-1043.

Mayer, J. (1992) Electron Spectroscopic Imaging and Diffraction: Applications in Materials Science. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1198-1199.

Smith, M. F. and J. P. Langmore (1992) Correction of the Contrast Transfer Function to Determine the Radial Density Distribution of Frozen- Hydrated Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:536-537.

Burmester, C., K. C. Holmes and R. R. Schroder (1995) Multiple isomorphous replacement for phase determination in protein crystals. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:856-857.

Grimm, R. and W. Baumeister (1995) Low-dose energy-filtered TEM of frozen hydrated virus particles using a post-column energy filter. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:844-845.


Transmission Electron Microscopy Field Emission

SUGGESTED LIST

VanDerMast, K. D. (1982) Field emission, developments and possibilities. J. Microsc. 130:309-324.

Zemlin, F. (1992) Desired features of cryoelectron microscope for the electron crystallography of biological material. Ultramicrosc. 46:25-32.

deJong, A. F. and D. VanDyck (1993) Ultimate resolution and information in electron microscopy II. The information limit of transmission electron microscopes. Ultramicrosc. 49:66-80.

Mul, P. M., B. J. H. Bormans and M. T. Otten (1993) Design of the CM20 FEG. Philips Elec. Optics Bull. 12-21.

Otten, M. T. (1993) Schottky versus cold field emission. Philips Elec. Optics Bull. 5-7.

Otten, M. T. and W. M. J. Coene (1993) High-resolution imaging on a field emission TEM. Ultramicrosc. 48:77-91.

Zhou, Z. H. and W. Chiu (1993) Prospects for using an IVEM with a FEG for imaging macromolecules towards atomic resolution. Ultramicrosc. 49:407-416.

Zemlin, F. (1994) Expected contribution of the field-emission gun to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micron 25:223-226.

EXTENSIVE LIST

Crewe, A. V., D. N. Eggenberger, J. Wall and L. M. Welter (1968) Electron gun using a field emission source. Rev. Sci. Inst. 39:576-583.

Crewe, A. V. (1971). High intensity electron sources and scanning electron microscopy. Electron Microscopy in Material Science Ed. U. Valdre. New York, Academic Press, Inc.

Ohtsuki, M. and E. Zeitler (1975) Minimal beam exposure with a field emission source. Ultramicrosc. 1:163-165.

Chiu, W. and R. M. Glaeser (1977) Factors affecting high resolution fixed-beam transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 2:207-217.

Troyon, M. (1979) The influence of beam intensity on the contrast transfer functionof a field emission electron microscope. Optik 52:401-411.

Kasper, E. (1982). Field electron emission systems. Advances in optical and electron microscopy Eds. R. Barer and V. E. Cosslett. New York, Academic Press., pp. 207-260

VanDerMast, K. D. (1982) Field emission, developments and possibilities. J. Microsc. 130:309-324.

Downing, K. H. (1991) Spot-scan imaging in transmission electron microscopy. Science 251:53-59.

Brock, J. M., M. T. Otten and W. M. Coene (1992) High-resolution imaging with a coherent electron source: The field emission gun. Micron 23:149-150.

Brock, J. M., M. T. Otten and M. J. C. deJong (1992) Improved spatial resolution in imaging, diffraction, microanalysis and scanning with a field emission TEM/SEM. Micron 23:151-152.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl, A. J. Koster and W. Baumeister (1992) Towards automatic electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 40:71-87.

Zemlin, F. (1992) Desired features of cryoelectron microscope for the electron crystallography of biological material. Ultramicrosc. 46:25-32.

deJong, A. F. and D. VanDyck (1993) Ultimate resolution and information in electron microscopy II. The information limit of transmission electron microscopes. Ultramicrosc. 49:66-80.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl and W. Baumeister (1993) Towards automatic electron tomography II. Implementation of autofocus and low-dose procedures. Ultramicrosc. 49:109-120.

Frank, J., W. Chiu and R. Henderson (1993) Flopping polypeptide chains and Suleika's subtle imperfections: analysis of variations in the electron micrograph of a purple membrane crystal. Ultramicrosc. 49:387-396.

Otten, M. T. and W. M. J. Coene (1993) High-resolution imaging on a field emission TEM. Ultramicrosc. 48:77-91.

Zhou, Z. H. and W. Chiu (1993) Prospects for using an IVEM with a FEG for imaging macromolecules towards atomic resolution. Ultramicrosc. 49:407-416.

Zemlin, F. (1994) Expected contribution of the field-emission gun to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micron 25:223-226.

Butcher, S. J., D. H. Bamford and S. D. Fuller (1995) DNA packaging orders the membrane of bacteriophage PRD1. EMBO J. 14:6078-6086.

Mimori-Kiyosue, Y.; Yamashita, I.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Namba, K. (1998) Role of the outermost subdomain of Salmonella flagellin in the filament structure revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. Journal of Molecular Biology 284: 521-530.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters and Bulletins

Tonomura, A., T. Matsuda and T. Komoda (1978) Off-axis electron holography by field emission electron microscope. Proc. Ninth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Toronto) 1:224-225.

Brock, J. M., M. T. Otten and M. J. C. d. Jong (1992) Performance and Applications of a Field-Emission Gun TEM/STEM. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:942-943.

Coene, W., A. F. d. Jong, H. Lichte, M. O. d. Beeck, H. Tietz and D. V. Dyck (1992) FEG-TEM : the route to HREM. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:100-101.

deJong, M. J. C., W. M. Busing and M. T. Otten (1992) Enhanced information from biological materials through technological improvements in cryo-electron microscopy. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:788-789.

Murakoshi, H., M. Ichihashi and H. Kakibayashi (1992) A 300-k-V Field-Emission Transmission Electron Microscope. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:936-937.

Otten, M. T. and W. M. J. Coene (1992) Principle and Practice of High-Resolution Imaging with a Field-Emission TEM. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:138-139.

Thompson, M. N. (1992) Philips Electron Microscopes: Applications Trends-Design Advances. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:976-977.

Typke, D., R. Hegerl and J. Kleinz (1992) Image Restoration for Biological Specimens Using External TEM Control and Electronic Image Recording. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1000-1001.

Delong, A. (1993) Electron sources for electron microscopes. Microscopy and Analysis 3:17-19.

Mul, P. M., B. J. H. Bormans and M. T. Otten (1993) Design of the CM20 FEG. Philips Elec. Optics Bull. 12-21.

Otten, M. T. (1993) Schottky versus cold field emission. Philips Elec. Optics Bull. 5-7.

Philips (1993) Foreword. Philips Electron Optics Bulletin 3-4.

Dube, P., H. Stark, E. V. orlova, M. Schatz, E. Beckmann, F. Zemlin and M. vanHeel (1995) 3D structure of single macromolecules at 15 angstroms resolution by cryo-microscopy and angular reconstitution. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:838-839.

Fujiyoshi, Y., K. Mitsuoka, T. Hirai, K. Murata, A. Miyazawa and Y. Kimura (1995) Characteristic feature on structure analyzed by high- resolution electron crystallography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:834-835.

Fujiyoshi, Y., K. Murata, K. Mitsuoka, T. Hirai, A. Miyazawa and Y. Kimura (1995) A microscopic system for high resolution electron crystallography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:70-71.

Koster, A. J., J. Walz, D. Typke, M. Nitsch and W. Baumeister (1995) Three dimensional imaging of biological macromolecules. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:732-733.

Rathkey, D. (1995) Field emission basics: The water bucket analogy. Microscopy Today 95 10:20-21.

Stark, H., E. Beckmann, R. Henderson and F. Zemlin (1995) SOPHIE, A helium cooled superconducting electron microscope with a Schottky field emitter. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:72-73.

Ziese, U., D. typke, R. Hegerl and W. Baumeister (1995) Cryo electron microscopy of SSV1 phage particles. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:842-843.

Daberkow, I., A. J. Koster, H. R. Tietz, D. Typke and J. Walz (1996) A system for automated electron tomography using Philips CM series transmission electron microscopes. Electron Optics Bulletin 134:27-31.


Cryo-Electron Microscopy Freezing

SUGGESTED LIST

General Methods of Vitrifying Samples

Taylor, K. A. and R. M. Glaeser (1976) Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated biological specimens. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 55:448-456.

Lepault, J. and J. Dubochet (1986) Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated specimens: Preparation and characteristics. Meth. Enzym. 127:719-730.

Dubochet, J., M. Adrian, J.-J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, Lepault, J., A. W. McDowall and P. Schultz (1988) Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 21:129-228.

Cyrklaff, M., N. Roos, H. Gross and J. Dubochet (1994) Particle-surface interaction in thin vitrified films for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 175:135-142.

Time-Resolved Cryo-Microscopy

Talmon, Y., J. L. Burns, M. H. Chestnut and D. P. Siegel (1990) Time-resolved cryotransmission electron microscopy. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech.14:6-12.

Berriman, J. and N. Unwin (1994) Analysis of transient structures by cryo-microscopy combined with rapid mixing of spray droplets. Ultramicrosc. 56:241-252.

EXTENSIVE LIST

General Methods of Vitrifying Samples

Dowell, L. G. and A. P. Rinfret (1960) Low-temperature forms of ice as studied by x-ray diffraction. Nature 188:1144-1148.

Fernandez-Moran, H. (1960) Low-temperature preparation techniques for electron microscopy of biological specimens based on rapid freezing with liquid helium II. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 85:689-713.

Heide, H. G. and S. Grund (1974) Eine tiefkuhlkette zum uberfuhren von wasserhaltigen biologischen objekten ins elektronenmikroskop. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 48:259-268.

Taylor, K. A. and R. M. Glaeser (1976) Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated biological specimens. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 55:448-456.

Bruggeller, P. and E. Mayer (1980) Complete vitrification in pure liquid water and dilute aqueous solutions. Nature 288:569-571.

Dubochet, J. and A. W. McDowall (1981) Vitification of pure water for electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 124:RP3-RP4.

Cohen, H. A., T.-W. Jeng, R. A. Grant and W. Chiu (1984) Specimen preparative methods for electron crystallography of soluble proteins. Ultramicrosc. 13:19-26.

Jaffe, J. S. and R. M. Glaeser (1984) Preparation of frozen-hydrated specimens for high resolution electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 13:373-378.

Lepault, J. and J. Dubochet (1986) Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated specimens: Preparation and characteristics. Meth. Enzym. 127:719-730.

Kellenberger, E. (1987). The response of biological macromolecules and supramolecular structures to the physics of cryo-specimen preparation. Cryotechniques in Biological Electron Microscopy Eds. R. A. Steinbrecht and K. Zierold. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, pp. 35-63.

Ryan, K. P. and M. I. Liddicoat (1987) Safety considerations regarding the use of propane and other liquified gases as coolants for rapid freezing purposes. J. Microsc. 147:337-340.

Ryan, K. P., D. H. Purse, S. G. Robinson and J. W. Wood (1987) The relative efficiency of cryogens used for plunge-cooling biological specimens. J. Microsc. 145:89-96.

Ward, R. and J. M. Murray (1987) Natural propane cryogen for frozen-hydrated biological specimens. J. Elect. Micros. Tech 5:275-277.

Dubochet, J., M. Adrian, J.-J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, Lepault, J., A. W. McDowall and P. Schultz (1988) Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 21:129-228.

Jeng, T.-W., Y. Talmon and W. Chiu (1988) Containment system for the preparation of vitrified- hydrated virus specimens. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 8:343-348.

Frederik, P. M., M. C. A. Stuart, P. H. H. Bomans and W. M. Busing (1989) Phospholipid, nature's own slide and cover slip for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 153:81-92.

Cyrklaff, M., M. Adrian and J. Dubochet (1990) Evaporation during preparation of unsupported thin vitrified aqueous layers for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 16:351-355.

Roos, N. and A. J. Morgan (1990). Cryopreparation of thin biological specimens for electron microscopy: Methods and applications. New York, Oxford University Press.

Trinick, J. and J. Cooper (1990) Concentration of solutes during preparations of aqueous suspensions for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 159:215-222.

Jakubowski, U. and M. Mende (1991) Preparation of ultrathin amorphous ice films for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Elect. Microsc. 161:241-252.

Kellenberger, E. (1991) The potential of cryofixation and freeze substitution: Observations and theoretical considerations. J. Elec. Microsc. 161:183-203.

Lepault, J., J.-L. Ranck and I. Erk (1992) Electron cryomicroscopy of frozen-hydrated biological specimens: analysis of freezing artifacts by x-ray cryocrystallography. Ultramicrosc. 46:19-24.

Cyrklaff, M., N. Roos, H. Gross and J. Dubochet (1994) Particle-surface interaction in thin vitrified films for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 175:135-142.

Wilson-Kubalek, E. M.; Brown, R. E.; Celia, H.; Milligan, R. A. (1998) Lipid nanotubes as substrates for helical crystallization of macromolecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 8040-5.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters, Bulletins Concerning Sample Vitrification

Taylor, K. A. (1975) Electron microscopy of frozen, hydrated biological specimens. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 33:300-301.

Glaeser, R. M. and K. A. Taylor (1976) Frozen hydrated biological specimens for electron microscopy and structure analysis. Sixth Europ. Reg. Conf. Elec. Microsc. (Jerusalem) 2:69-72.

Fernandez-Moran, H. (1982) Cryomicroscopy, history and outlook. Proc. Tenth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Hamburg) 1:751-761.

Lepault, J. and J. Dubochet (1982) Electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated specimens. Proc. Tenth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Hamburg) 3:111-112.

Talmon, Y. (1982) Frozen hydrated specimens. Proc. Tenth Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Hamburg) 1:25-32.

Chiu, W., H. A. Cohen, R. A. Grant and T.-W. Jeng (1983) Frozen hydration of protein crystals. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 41:428-429.

Lepault, J. (1983) Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated suspensions. Elec. Microsc. Soc. Am. Proc. 41:426-427.

Time-Resolved Cryo-Microscopy

Talmon, Y., J. L. Burns, M. H. Chestnut and D. P. Siegel (1990) Time-resolved cryotransmission electron microscopy. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech.14:6-12.

Lepault, J., I. Erk, G. Nicolas and J.-L. Ranck (1991) Time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified muscular components. J. Microsc. 161:47-57.

Chestnut, M. H., D. P. Siegel, J. L. Burns and Y. Talmon (1992) A temperature-jump device for time-resolved cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 20:95-101.

Berriman, J. and N. Unwin (1994) Analysis of transient structures by cryo-microscopy combined with rapid mixing of spray droplets. Ultramicrosc. 56:241-252.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters, Bulletins Concerning Time-Resolved Cryo-Microscopy

Mandelkow, E.-M. and R. Milligan (1990). Time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy of oscillating microtubules. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:502-503.

Talmon, Y., J. L. Burns, M. H. Chestnut and D. P. Siegel (1990). On-the-grid processing and time-resolved cryo-TEM: The extension of the thin liquid film vitrification method. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:490-491.

Quick-Freezing Apparatus

Dubochet, J., J. Lepault, R. Freeman, J. A. Berriman, Homo and J.-C. (1982) Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions. J. Microsc. 128:219-237.

Murray, J. M. and R. Ward (1987) Principles for the construction and operation of a device for rapidly freezing suspensions for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Elect. Micros. Tech. 5:279-284.

Dubochet, J., M. Adrian, J.-J. Chang, J.-C. Homo, Lepault, J., A. W. McDowall and P. Schultz (1988) Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 21:129-228.

Chestnut, M. H., D. P. Siegel, J. L. Burns and Y. Talmon (1992) A temperature-jump device for time-resolved cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 20:95-101.

Trachtenberg, S. (1993) Fast-freezing devices for cryo-electron-microscopy. Micron 24:1-12.

Berriman, J. and N. Unwin (1994) Analysis of transient structures by cryo-microscopy combined with rapid mixing of spray droplets. Ultramicrosc. 56:241-252.

Image Analysis and 3-dimensional Reconstruction

Suggested Reading

General Reviews/Book Chapters

Crowther, R. A. and A. Klug (1975) Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies by image reconstruction from electron micrographs. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44:161-182.

Glaeser, R. M. (1985) Electron crystallography of biological macromolecules. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:243-275.a

Stewart, M. (1988) Introduction to the computer image processing of electron micrographs of two-dimensionally ordered biological structures. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:301-324.

Moody, M. F. (1990) Image analysis of electron micrographs. In Biophysical Electron Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Modern Techniques (P. W. Hawkes & U. Valdre, eds.) Academic Press, New York pp. 145-287.

Stewart, M. (1990). Electron microscopy of biological macromolecules: frozen hydrated methods and computer image processing. Modern Microscopies: Techniques and Applications . (P. J.Duke and A. G. Michette, Eds.), Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 9-39.

Frank, J. (1996) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies. (Academic Press, San Diego) pp. 1-342.

Microdensitometry and Interpolation

McGee, P. A., Trus, B. L. & Steven, A. C. (1982) Techniques to evaluate the performance of scanning microdensitometers in the digitization of electron micrographs. Micron 13:221-228.

Three-dimensional Reconstruction from Electron Micrographs

General Reviews

Crowther, R. A., D. J. DeRosier and A. Klug (1970) The reconstruction of a three-dimensional structure from projections and its application to electron microscopy. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 317:319-340.

Crowther, R. A. and A. Klug (1975) Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies by image reconstruction from electron micrographs. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44:161-182.

Misell, D. L. (1978) Image analysis, enhancement and interpretation. Pract. Meth. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. A. M. Glauert)North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam 7:1-305.

Frank, J. (1996) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies. (Academic Press, San Diego) pp. 1-342.

Helical Structures

DeRosier, D. J. & Moore, P. B. (1970) Reconstruction of three-dimensional images from electron micrographs of structures with helical symmetry. J. Mol. Biol. 52:355-369.

Stewart, M. (1988) Computer image processing of electron micrographs of biological structures with helical symmetry. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:325-358.

Moody, M. F. (1990) Image analysis of electron micrographs. In Biophysical Electron Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Modern Techniques (P. W. Hawkes & U. Valdre, eds.) Academic Press, New York pp. 170-197,208-222.

Morgan, D. G. and D. DeRosier (1992) Processing images of helical structures: A new twist. Ultramicrosc. 46:263-285.

Crystalline, Two-Dimensional Structures

Amos, L. A., R. Henderson and P. N. T. Unwin (1982) Three-dimensional structure determination by electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 39:183-231.

Glaeser, R. M. (1985) Electron crystallography of biological macromolecules. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:243-275.

Crystalline, Three-Dimensional Structures

Taylor, K. A. and R. A. Crowther (1991) A protocol for 3D image reconstruction from a single image of an oblique section. Ultramicrosc 38:85-103.

Single Particles With Point Group Symmetry

Icosahedral

Crowther, R. A., Amos, L. A., Finch, J. T., DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1970) .Three dimensional reconstructions of spherical viruses by Fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Nature 226:421-425.

Crowther, R. A. (1971) .Procedures for three-dimensional reconstruction of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:221-230.

Fuller, S. D., S. J. Butcher, R. H. Cheng and T. S. Baker (1996) Three-dimensional reconstruction of icosahedral particles -- The uncommon line. J. Struct. Biol. 116:48-55.

Single, Asymmetric Particles (C1 Point Group Symmetry)

Radermacher, M. (1988) .Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles from random and non random tilt series J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:359-394

Frank, J. (1989) Image analysis of single macromolecules. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 2:53-74.

Frank, J. and M. Radermacher (1992) Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles negatively stained or in vitreous ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:241-262.

Radermacher, M. (1994) Three-dimensional reconstruction from random projections: Orientational alignment via Radon transforms. Ultramicroscopy 53:121-136.

Tomography

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl, A. J. Koster and W. Baumeister (1992) Towards automatic electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 40:71-87.

Frank, J. (1992) Electron tomography: Three-dimensional imaging with the transmission electron microscope. (Plenum Prexss, N.Y.) pp. 1-399.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl and W. Baumeister (1993) Towards automatic electron tomography II. Implementation of autofocus and low-dose procedures. Ultramicrosc. 49:109-120.

Fung, J. C., W. Liu, W. J. DeRuijter, H. Chen, C. K. Abbey, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1996) Toward fully automated high-resolution electron tomography. J. Struct. Biol. 116:181-189.

Extensive List

General Reviews/Book Chapters

Lake, J. A. (1972) Biological studies. Optical Transforms (H. Lipson, ed.) Academic Press pp. 153-188.

Frank, J. (1973) Computer processing of electron micrographs. Adv. Tech. Biol. Elec. Microsc. 1:215-274.

Amos, L. A. (1974) Image analysis of macromolecular structures. J. Microsc. 100:143-152.

Crowther, R. A. and A. Klug (1975) Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies by image reconstruction from electron micrographs. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44:161-182.

Baumeister, W. (1978) Biological horizons in molecular microscopy. Cytobiologie 17:246-297.

Misell, D. L. (1978) Image analysis, enhancement and interpretation. Pract. Meth. Elec. Microsc. (A. M. Glauert, ed.) 7:1-305.

Saxton, W. O. (1978) Computer techniques for image processing in electron microscopy. Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Supplement 10 (L. Marton & C. Marton, eds.), Academic Press, N. Y..

Frank, J. (1979) Image analysis in electron microscopy. J. Microsc. 117:25-38.

Klug, A. (1979) Image analysis and reconstruction in the electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Chemica Scripta 14:245-256.

Baker, T. S. (1981). Image processing of biological specimens: a bibliography. Electron Microscpoy in Biology . (Ed. J. D. Griffith) John Wiley and Sons, N. Y. 1:189-290.

Hawkes, P. W. (1981) Some uses of computers in electron optics. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 14:1353-1367.

Glaeser, R. M. (1985) Electron crystallography of biological macromolecules. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:243-275.

Stewart, M. (1988) Introduction to the computer image processing of electron micrographs of two-dimensionally ordered biological structures. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:301-324.

Moody, M. F. (1990) Image analysis of electron micrographs. In Biophysical Electron Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Modern Techniques (P. W. Hawkes & U. Valdre, eds.) Academic Press, New York pp. 145-287.

Stewart, M. (1990). Electron microscopy of biological macromolecules: frozen hydrated methods and computer image processing. Modern Microscopies: Techniques and Applications . (P. J.Duke and A. G. Michette, Eds.), Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 9-39.

Frank, J. (1996) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies. (Academic Press, San Diego) pp. 1-342.

Microdensitometry and Interpolation

Ledley, R. S. (1964) High-speed automatic analysis of biomedical pictures. Science 146:216-223.

Drenth, J., Kloosterman, D., van der Woude, J., Croon, H. C. & van Zwet, L. C. M. (1965) An automatic integrating microdensitometer. J. Sci. Instrum. 42:222-224.

Abrahamsson, S. (1966) A computer controlled film scanner. J. Sci. Instrum. 43:931-933.

Arndt, U. W., Crowther, R. A. & Mallett, J. F. W. (1968) A computer-linked cathode-ray tube microdensitometer for x-ray crystallography. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 1:510-516.

Mendelsohn, M. L., Mayall, B. H., Prewitt, J. M. S., Bostrom, R. C. & Holcomb, W. G. (1968) Digital transformation and computer analysis of microscopic images. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 2:77-150.

Arndt, U. W., Leigh, J. B., Mallett, J. F. W. & Twinn, K. E. (1969) A mechanical microdensitometer. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 2:385-387.

Xuong, N. (1969) An automatic scanning densitometer and its application to x-ray crystallography. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 2:485-489.

Nockolds, C. E. & Kretsinger, R. W. (1970) An evaluation of a rotating drum densitometer and its application to precession photographs of protein crystals. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 3:842-846.

Werner, P.-E. (1970) Accuracy in film scanner intensity measurements. Acta Crystallogr. A26:489-491.

Billingsley, F. C. (1971) Image processing for electron microscopy: A Digital System. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 4:127-159.

Matthews, B. W., Klopfenstein, C. E. & Colman, P. M. (1972) A computer controlled film scanner for X-ray crystallography. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 5:353-359.

Wlodawer, A. (1974) Precision of a rotating-drum film scanner. J. Appl. Cryst. 7:19-21.

Mallett, J. F. W., Champness, J. N., Faruqi, A. R. & Gossling, T. H. (1977) A new automatic flat-bed microdensitometer for use in X-ray crystallography. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 10:351-358.

Wonacott, A. J. & Burnett, R. M. (1977) Microdensitometry. In The Rotation Method in Crystallography (U. W. Arndt & A. J. Wonacott, eds.) North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam pp. 119-138.

Markham, R., Garner, R. T., Parker, E. A. & Johnson, M. W. (1978) A simple recording densitometer for electron micrographs. Micron 9:227-236.

Scott, J. C. (1981) Inexpensive photographic transparency digitiser. J. Phys. E.:Sci. Instrum. 14:35-37.

Smith, P. R. (1981) Bilinear interpolation of digital images. Ultramicrosc. 6:201-204.

McGee, P. A., Trus, B. L. & Steven, A. C. (1982) Techniques to evaluate the performance of scanning microdensitometers in the digitization of electron micrographs. Micron 13:221-228.

Three-dimensional Reconstruction From Electron Micrographs

General Reviews

DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1968) Reconstruction of Three Dimensional Structures from Electron Micrographs. Nature 217:130-134.

Crowther, R. A., D. J. DeRosier and A. Klug (1970) The reconstruction of a three-dimensional structure from projections and its application to electron microscopy. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 317:319-340.

DeRosier, D. J. (1971) The reconstruction of three-dimensional images from electron micrographs. Contemp. Phys. 12:437-452.

Klug, A. (1971) III. Applications of Image Analysis Techniques in Electron Microscopy: Optical Diffraction and Filtering and Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from Electron Micrographs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:173-179.

Lake, J. A. (1972) Biological Studies. Optical Transforms (Ed. H. Lipson) Academic Press pp. 153-188.

Vainshtein, B. K. (1973) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Sov. Phys.-Usp. 16:185-206.

Crowther, R. A. and A. Klug (1975) Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies by image reconstruction from electron micrographs. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44:161-182.

Misell, D. L. (1978) Image analysis, enhancement and interpretation. Pract. Meth. Elec. Microsc. (Ed. A. M. Glauert)North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam 7:1-305.

Saxton, W. O. (1978). Computer techniques for image processing in electron microscopy. Adv. in Electronics and Electron Physics, Supplement10 . (Eds. L. Marton & C. Marton), Academic Press, N. Y.

Vainshtein, B. K. (1978) Electron microscopical analysis of the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules. Adv. Opt. Elec. Microsc. 7:281-377.

Frank, J. (1979) Image analysis in electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy 117(1):25-38.

Hoppe, W. (1979) Three-dimensional electron microscopy of individual structures: Crystallography of 'Crystals' consisting of a single unit cell. Chemica Scripta 14:227-243.

Klug, A. (1979) Image analysis and reconstruction in the electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. Chemica Scripta 14:245-256.

Aebi, U., W. Fowler and P. R. Smith (1982) Three-dimensional structure of protein determined by electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 8:191-206.

Steven, A. C. (1981) Visualization of virus structure in three dimensions. Meth. Cell Biol. 22:297-323.

Barth, M., Bryan, R. K., & Hegerl, R. (1989) Approximation of missing-cone data in 3D electron microscopy. Ultramicrosc. 31: 365-378

Frank, J. (1989) Advances in microscopy - Part 1. Three-dimensional imaging techniques in electron microscopy. Biotechniques 7:164-173.

Van Dyck, D. (1989) Three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional projections with unknown orientation, position and projection axis. Ultramicrosc. 30:435-438.

Helical Structures

DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1968) Reconstruction of three dimensional structures from electron micrographs. Nature (London) 217:130-134.

DeRosier, D. J. & Moore, P. B. (1970) Reconstruction of three-dimensional images from electron micrographs of structures with helical symmetry. J. Mol. Biol. 52:355-369.

Amos, L. A. & Klug, A. (1975) Three-dimensional image reconstructions of the contractile tail of T4 bacteriophage (Appendix: Combination of data from helical particles: Correlation and selection. By L. A. Amos). J. Mol. Biol. 99:51-73.

Smith, P. R., U. Aebi, R. Josephs and M. Kessel (1976) Studies of the structure of the T4 bacteriophage tail sheath I. The recovery of three-dimensional structural information from the extended sheath (Appendix: The determination of the helical screw angle of a helical particle from its diffraction pattern). J. Mol. Biol. 106:243-275.

Stewart, M. (1988) Computer image processing of electron micrographs of biological structures with helical symmetry. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:325-358.

Moody, M. F. (1990) Image analysis of electron micrographs. In Biophysical Electron Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Modern Techniques (P. W. Hawkes & U. Valdre, eds.) Academic Press, New York pp. 170-197,208-222.

Morgan, D. G. and D. DeRosier (1992) Processing images of helical structures: A new twist. Ultramicrosc. 46:263-285.

Crystalline, Two-Dimensional Structures

Henderson, R. & Unwin, P. N. T. (1975) Three-dimensional model of purple membrane obtained by electron microscopy. Nature (London) 257:28-32.

Fuller, S. D. (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction of membrane protein crystals. Methods in Cell Biol. 22:251-296.

Amos, L. A., R. Henderson and P. N. T. Unwin (1982) Three-dimensional structure determination by electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 39:183-231.

Chiu., W. (1982). High-resolution electron microscopy of unstained, hydrated protein crystals. Electron Microscopy of Proteins. (Ed. J. R. Harris)Academic Press, N. Y. 233-259.

Glaeser, R. M. (1985) Electron crystallography of biological macromolecules. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 36:243-275.

Crystalline, Three-Dimensional Structures

Crowther, R. A.and P. K. Luther (1984) Three-dimensional reconstruction from a single oblique section of fish muscle M-band. Nature (London) 307:569-570.

Crowther, R. A., P. K. Luther and K. A. Taylor (1990) Computation of a three dimensional image of a periodic specimen from a single view of an oblique section. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 3:29-42.

Taylor, K. A. and R. A. Crowther (1991) A protocol for 3D image reconstruction from a single image of an oblique section. Ultramicrosc 38:85-103.

Winkelmann, D. A., T. S. Baker, & I. Rayment (1991) Three-dimensional structure of myosin subfragment 1 from electron microscopy of sectioned crystals. J. Cell Biol. 114:701-713.

Winkler, H. and K. A. Taylor (1996) Software for 3-D reconstruction of images of oblique sections through 3-D crystals. J. Struct. Biol. 116:241-247.

Single Particles with Point Group Symmetry

Icosahedral

Crowther, R. A., Amos, L. A., Finch, J. T., DeRosier, D. J. & Klug, A. (1970) .Three dimensional reconstructions of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Nature 226:421-425.

Crowther, R. A. (1971) .Procedures for three-dimensional reconstruction of spherical viruses by fourier synthesis from electron micrographs Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 261:221-230.

Crowther, R. A. (1971) Three-dimensional reconstruction and the architecture of spherical viruses. Endeavour 30:124-129.

Fuller, S. D. (1987) .The T=4 envelope of Sindbis virus is organized by interactions with a complementary T=3 capsid Cell 48:923-934.

Baker, T. S., J. Drak & M. Bina (1988) Reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of Simian Virus 40 and visualization of the chromatin core. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:422-426.

Baker, T. S., J. Drak & M. Bina (1989) The capsid of small papova viruses contains 72 Pentameric capsomeres: Direct evidence from cryo-electron microscopy of Simian virus 40. Biophys. J. 55:243-253.

Baker, T. S. and R. H. Cheng (1996) A model-based approach for determining orientations of biological macromolecules imaged by cryoelectron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 116:120-130.

Fuller, S. D., S. J. Butcher, R. H. Cheng and T. S. Baker (1996) Three-dimensional reconstruction of icosahedral particles -- The uncommon line. J. Struct. Biol. 116:48-55.

Other

DeRosier, D. J. & Oliver, R. M. (1972) .A low resolution electron-density map of lipoyl transsuccinylase, the core of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 36:199-203.

Mellema, J. E. & Klug, A. (1972) .Quaternary structure of gastropod haemocyanin Nature (London) 239:146-150.

Single, Asymmetric Particles (C1 Point Group Symmetry)

Frank, J., Radermacher, M., Wagenknecht, T. & Verschoor, A. (1986) .A new method for three-dimensional reconstruction of single macromolecules using low-dose electron microscopy Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483:77-87.

Frank, J. and M. Rademacher (1986). Three-dimensional reconstruction of nonperiodic macromolecular assemblies from electron micrographs. Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy Ed. J. K. Koehler. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Frank, J., M. Radermacher, T. Wagenknecht and A. Verschoor (1986). A new method for three-dimensional reconstruction of single macro molecules using low-dose electron microscopy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Recent Advances in Electron and Light Optical imaging in biology and Medicine Ed. A. P. Somlyo. New York, The N.Y. Academy of Sciences.

Radermacher, M., Wagenknecht, T., Verschoor, A. & Frank, J. (1987) .Three-dimensional reconstruction from a single-exposure, random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli J. Microsc. 146:113-136.

Radermacher, M. (1988) .Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles from random and non random tilt series J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 9:359-394

Frank, J. (1989) Image analysis of single macromolecules. Elect. Microsc. Rev. 2:53-74.

Frank, J. (1989) Advances in Microscopy - Part 1. Three-dimensional imaging techniques in electron microscopy. Biotechniques 7:164-173.

Frank, J. (1990) Classification of macromolecular assemblies studied as 'single particles'. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 23:281-329.

Schatz, M. and M. VanHeel (1990) Invariant classification of molecular views in electron micrographs. Ultramicrosc. 32:255-264.

Frank, J. and M. Radermacher (1992) Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles negatively stained or in vitreous ice. Ultramicrosc. 46:241-262.

Penczek, P., M. Radermacher and J. Frank (1992) Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles embedded in ice. Ultramicrosc 40:33-53.

Radermacher, M. (1994) Three-dimensional reconstruction from random projections: Orientational alignment via Radon transforms. Ultramicroscopy 53:121-136.

Dube, P., H. Stark, E. V. orlova, M. Schatz, E. Beckmann, F. Zemlin and M. vanHeel (1995) 3D structure of single macromolecules at 15 resolution by cryo-microscopy and angular reconstitution. JMSA Proceed. Microsc. Microanal. 53:838-839.

Tomography

Dover, S. D., A. Elliott and A. K. Kernaghan (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction from images of tilted specimens: the paramyosin filament. JMICRO 122:23-33.

Olins, D. E., A. L. Olins, H. A. Levy, R. C. Durfee, S. M. Margle, E. P. Tinnel and S. D. Dover (1983) Electron microscopy tomography: Transcription in three dimensions. Science 220:498-500.

McEwen, B. F., M. Radermacher, C. L. Rieder and J. Frank (1986) Tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction of cilia ultrastructure from thick sections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9040-9044.

Frank, J., B. F. McEwen, M. Radermacher, J. N. Turner and C. L. Rieder (1987) Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction in high voltage electron microscopy. J. Elec. Microsc. Tech. 6:193-205.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl, A. J. Koster and W. Baumeister (1992) Towards automatic electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 40:71-87.

Frank, J. (1992) Electron tomography: Three-dimensional imaging with the transmission electron microscope. (Plenum Prexss, N.Y.) pp. 1-399.

Koster, A. J., H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1992) Automated microscopy for electron tomography. Ultramicrosc. 46:207-227.

Dierksen, K., D. Typke, R. Hegerl and W. Baumeister (1993) Towards automatic electron tomography II. Implementation of autofocus and low-dose procedures. Ultramicrosc. 49:109-120.

Fung, J. C., W. Liu, W. J. DeRuijter, H. Chen, C. K. Abbey, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1996) Toward fully automated high-resolution electron tomography. J. Struct. Biol. 116:181-189.

Hessler, D., S. J. Young and M. H. Ellisman (1996) A flexible environment for the visualization of three- dimensional biological structures. J. Struc. Biol. 116:113-119.

Kremer, J. R., D. N. Mastronarde and J. R. McIntosh (1996) Computer visualization of three-dimensional image data using IMOD. J. Struc. Biol. 116:71-76.

Meeting Abstracts, Newsletters, Bulletins

McEwen, B. F. and J. Frank (1990). Application ot tomographic 3D reconstruction methods to a diverse range of biological preparations. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:516-517.

McEwen, B. F., M. J. Song, A. Ruknudin, D. P. Barnard, J. Frank and F. Sachs (1990). Tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction of patch- clamped membranes imaged with the high-voltage EM. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:522-523.

Zhang, N.-Y., B. F. McEwen and J. Frank (1990). On the use of POCS for restoring the "missing wedge" in electron tomography. Proc. XII Int'l. Cong. Elec. Microsc. (Seattle) 1:520-521

Carragher, B., D. F. Hessler, J. E. Hinshaw, M. Martone, R. A. Milligan, S. J. Young and M. H. Ellisman (1991). Computer-aided image analysis and graphics in biological microscopy at higher voltages. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:438-439.

Typke, D., K. Dierksen and W. Baumeister (1991). Automatic electron tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 49:544-545

Agard, D. A., A. J. Koster, M. B. Braunfeld and J. W. Sedat (1992) Automated Data Collection for Electron Tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1044-1045.

Frank, J. and B. F. McEwen (1992) Electron Tomography's Remaining Problems: How to Fill the Wedge in Fourier Space and How to See What You've Got in Real Space. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:1062-1063.

Woodcock, C. L., R. A. Horowitz and D. A. Agard (1992) Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromatin Fibers in situ Examined by EM Tomography. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. Am. 50:498-499.

Koster, A. J., M. B. Braunfeld, J. C. Fung, C. K. Abbey, K. F. Han, W. Liu, H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1993) Towards automatic three dimensional imaging of large biological structures using intermediate voltage electron microscopy. MSA Bull. 23:176-188.

Koster, A. J., J. Walz, D. Typke, M. Nitsch and W. Baumeister (1995) Three dimensional imaging of biological macromolecules. JMSA Proceed. Microsc. Microanal. 53:732-733.

Liu, W., J. Fung, W. J. deRuijter, H. Chen, J. W. Sedat and D. A. Agard (1995) Automated electron tomography: From data collection to image processing. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:26-27.

Mannella, C. A., M. Marko, K. Buttle, P. Penczek, A. Leith and J. Frank (1995) Tomographic reconstruction of mitochondria. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:740-741.

Skoglund, U., L.-A. Ofverstedt, R. Burnett and G. Bricogne (1995) Maximum entropy EM tomography: Demonstration of improved resolution with adenovirus. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:736-737.

Taylor, K. A. and H. Winkler (1995) 3-D reconstruction of paracrystalline biological specimens by tomography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:734-735.

Woodcock, C. L. (1995) Practical electron tomography. JMSA Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 53:742-743.

Daberkow, I., A. J. Koster, H. R. Tietz, D. Typke and J. Walz (1996) A system for automated electron tomography using Philps CM series transmission electron microscopes. Elec. Optics Bull. 134:27-31.



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